Last Updated: December 20, 2023

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Codependency is experienced when an individual has an unhealthy dependence on their closest relationships. 

Understanding Codependency

Codependency is a psychological concept originally coined to describe relationships characterized by excessive emotional or psychological reliance, typically involving a partner, family member, or friend with a pathological condition or addiction.

Often stemming from dysfunctional family dynamics, it can lead to unhealthy behaviors and patterns.

A codependent person may feel compelled to cater to the needs of others, often neglecting their own needs, desires, and well-being in the process.

This condition is not just confined to relationships with substance abusers; it can manifest in any relationship where there is an imbalance of care, leading to enabling behaviors, poor boundaries, and an unhealthy attachment or reliance.

Codependency can impair one’s mental health, emotional development, and ability to maintain healthy interdependence in relationships.

Recognizing and addressing codependency patterns early is crucial to preventing mental health issues and cultivating fulfilling balanced relationships.

Signs of Codependency

Recognizing codependency can be challenging as its signs can be subtle. Here are the key symptoms often exhibited by individuals in codependent relationships:

Low Self-Esteem

  • Constantly comparing oneself to others and feeling inadequate.
  • Struggling with perfectionism and needing to feel better.


  • Going out of one's way to please others, even at the expense of one's needs and well-being.
  • Fear of rejection and being overly accommodating to avoid displeasing others.

Poor Boundaries

  • Struggling to say ‘no’ and feeling responsible for other people's feelings, thoughts, actions, choices, and well-being.
  • Overstepping boundaries to feel needed or to avoid abandonment.


  • Relying heavily on others for a sense of worth and validation.
  • Feeling anxious, restless, or discontented when alone.

Obsessive Concern for Others

  • Fixating on other people’s problems and needs while neglecting one’s own.
  • Offering unsolicited advice, direction, and help.

Control Issues

  • Believing others are incapable of taking care of themselves.
  • Attempting to fix, manage, and control people and situations, even when unwarranted.


  • Ignoring or downplaying one’s feelings, needs, and experiences.
  • Living in denial about the severity of one’s or a loved one's problems.

These symptoms, often interrelated, create relationship addiction, reinforce codependent behaviors, and can significantly impair the mental health and emotional well-being of the people involved.

Causes of Codependency

Dysfunctional Family Dynamics

Dysfunctional relationships in the family often lay the groundwork for the development of codependency.

In such families, children might grow up in environments marked by inconsistency, abuse, neglect, or the emotional unavailability of codependent parents.

These adverse childhood experiences can hinder normal emotional development, leading to a perpetual need to please or save others in adulthood.

These individuals often have difficulty setting boundaries and may experience intense fear of abandonment, which fuels their codependent behaviors.

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders, particularly dependent personality disorder and borderline personality disorder can contribute to developing codependent relationships.

Individuals with these disorders often fear abandonment and may exhibit clinging and submissive behaviors, which can lead to codependent tendencies.

Their own needs and well-being often become secondary as they focus excessively on meeting the needs of their romantic partners or other family members, developing a dependent person’s addiction to approval and acceptance.

Substance Abuse

Substance abuse is another significant factor contributing to codependency.

When a family member struggles with chemical dependency, other family members may adopt roles and behaviors to maintain equilibrium within the family unit. This often leads to the development of codependent behaviors.

People in such environments might ignore their own needs and feelings to maintain peace or to protect the addicted person from the consequences of their behaviors.

They might feel responsible for their loved one's addiction and develop a reliance on the relationship, often stemming from a deeply rooted desire to feel needed and valued.

In each of these scenarios, the development of codependency is often a learned behavior, serving as a coping mechanism for dealing with pain, stress, and emotional emptiness

Overcoming codependency requires a conscious effort to address these underlying issues and change long-established behavioral patterns, enabling individuals to build self-esteem, establish healthy boundaries, and develop fulfilling, mutually respectful relationships.

How Codependency Affects Romantic Relationships

Codependency can heavily influence romantic relationships, often making them one-sided, unfulfilling, and unhealthy.

In codependent relationships, individuals might lose their sense of self as they become overly focused on their partner’s needs, feelings, and problems.

The fear of being alone or abandoned often trumps one's well-being, leading to a pattern of self-sacrifice and suppressing one's desires and needs.

Such relationships are characterized by an imbalance of power, with one partner assuming a caretaker role while the other may become more reliant and passive.

This dynamic can lead to resentment and frustration, as the caretaker feels unappreciated and overwhelmed, and the dependent partner feels smothered and controlled.

This imbalance impedes the growth and autonomy of both partners, leading to stagnation and dysfunction in the relationship.

The codependent partner may also struggle to set and maintain healthy boundaries, allowing their partner’s behavior, moods, and opinions to significantly influence them.

They might find it hard to voice their needs, opinions, and desires, leading to a loss of identity and a sense of being ‘lost’ in the relationship.

This lack of healthy independence and mutual respect can lead to significant stress and dissatisfaction for both partners, making the relationship unsustainable.

Why Codependent Relationships are Unhealthy

Codependency is inherently unhealthy as it impedes individuals' emotional growth and well-being.

It fosters a debilitating reliance on external validation and approval, which can lead to a neglect of one's own feelings, needs, and well-being which can often lead to mental illness.

A codependent person will often struggle with low self-esteem, feeling unworthy of love and care unless they are meeting the needs of others.

This continuous self-neglect can lead to mental and physical health issues like anxiety, depression, and chronic stress.

In a codependent relationship, the enabling and rescuing behaviors perpetuate unhealthy patterns, preventing both individuals from learning and growing.

The caretaker might prevent the dependent partner from facing the natural consequences of their actions, hindering their personal growth and ability to develop healthy coping mechanisms.

This cycle of dependency and caregiving creates a barrier to true intimacy, as both partners cannot express their true selves and needs openly and honestly.

Addressing the root causes of codependency and changing these behavioral patterns is crucial to building self-worth, improving mental health, and developing healthy, balanced, and mutually satisfying relationships.

How to Overcome Codependency

Overcoming codependent behavior and changing unhealthy behaviors within relationships involves recognizing unhealthy patterns and committing to change them. Below are some steps to start this journey.

Seek Professional Help

  • Engaging in talking therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy can address the underlying issues and provide you with the tools to develop healthier coping mechanisms.
  • Consider family therapy to address dysfunctional family dynamics and improve communication.

Educate Yourself

  • Learn about codependency, its causes, and its effects to better understand the patterns and behaviors.
  • Explore resources on building self-esteem and setting healthy boundaries.

Develop Self-Awareness

  • Reflect on your own needs, feelings, and desires regularly.
  • Identify and challenge your codependent thoughts and behaviors.

Establish Boundaries

  • Communicate your limits and stick to them.
  • Learn to say ‘no’ and prioritize your own needs and well-being.

Foster Independence

  • Encourage autonomy and self-sufficiency in your relationships.
  • Develop hobbies and interests outside of your relationships and spend time nurturing them.

Cultivate Healthy Relationships

  • Seek relationships that are mutually respectful, balanced, and supportive.
  • Avoid relationships that are one-sided or that require you to suppress your needs and feelings.

Practice Self-Care

Prioritize your mental, emotional, and physical well-being. Develop a routine that includes regular exercise, a balanced diet, adequate sleep, and relaxation techniques.

Remember, overcoming codependency is gradual and requires continuous effort, self-reflection, and support from loved ones and mental health professionals.

It’s about rebuilding self-esteem, learning to value oneself, establishing healthy boundaries, and fostering genuine connections with others.

Individuals can break free from codependency and lead more fulfilling, balanced, and joyful lives and prosper in future relationships.

Frequently Asked Questions About Codependency

Can a Codependent Person Build and Maintain Relationships?

A co-dependent person can learn to build healthy, balanced relationships, but it often requires intentional effort and possibly professional intervention. 

By addressing the underlying issues leading to codependent behaviors, learning to set healthy boundaries, and focusing on personal growth and self-care, individuals can develop the skills to maintain healthy and mutually satisfying relationships.

Can Codependents Love?

Codependents are capable of love, but their love is often overshadowed by the need to be needed, leading to unhealthy relationship dynamics. 

The fear of abandonment and low self-esteem may cause them to overextend themselves to hold onto relationships, confusing love with rescue and caregiving.

By working through their issues they can experience and express love in a more balanced, fulfilling way.

How do I know if I have Codependent Tendencies?

Recognizing codependency involves self-reflection and honesty about your relationship patterns and behaviors.

If you find yourself consistently neglecting your own needs to meet the needs of others, struggle to set and maintain boundaries, experience low self-esteem, and have excessive fear or anxiety regarding abandonment, you might be dealing with codependency. 


Co-Dependency | Mental Health America

The Lived Experience of Codependency - Bacon et al., (2020)


What's to know about codependent relationships?

An Exploration of the Experience of Codependency - Bacon, (2015)


The contents of this article are provided for informational purposes only and are not intended to substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is always recommended to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making any health-related changes or if you have any questions or concerns about your health. Anahana is not liable for any errors, omissions, or consequences that may occur from using the information provided.